HD Medical Videos

3D Anatomy Tutorial of External Carotid Branches

3D Anatomy Tutorial of External Carotid Branches

The external carotid artery could be a major artery of the top and neck. It arises from the common carotid artery when it bifurcates into the external and internal carotid artery. The external carotid artery begins at the level of the higher border of ...
Dengue hemorrhagic fever Animation

Dengue hemorrhagic fever Animation

Dengue hemorrhagic fever could be a severe and typically fatal infection that occurs tropical regions. It is commonest in Southeast Asia and also the western Pacific islands. The disease has been increasing rapidly in Latin America and the Caribbean. ...
Full Swelling surgical Examination

Full Swelling surgical Examination

In medical parlance, swelling, turgescence or tumefaction may be a transient abnormal enlargement of a body part or space not caused by proliferation of cells. It is caused by accumulation of fluid in tissues. It can occur throughout the body (generalized), ...
Varicose Vein Examination for Finals

Varicose Vein Examination for Finals

Varicose veins are veins that became enlarged and tortuous (twisted). The term commonly refers to the veins on the leg,  though varicose veins can occur elsewhere. Veins have leaflet valves to stop blood from flowing backwards (retrograde flow or reflux). ...
Polycystic Kidney Disease – USMLE Step 2 Review

Polycystic Kidney Disease – USMLE Step 2 Review

Polycystic kidney disease (PKD or PCKD, also called polycystic kidney syndrome) is a cystic genetic disorder of the kidneys it happens in humans and some other animals. PKD is characterized by the presence of multiple cysts (hence, “polycystic”) ...
Hypercalcemia - USMLE Step 2 Review

Hypercalcemia – USMLE Step 2 Review

Hypercalcaemia hypercalcemia is an elevated calcium (Ca2+) level within the blood.[1] (Normal range: 9–10.5 mg/dL or 2.2–2.6 mmol/L).. It can be an asymptomatic laboratory finding, however because an elevated calcium level is typically indicative ...
Diverticulitis – USMLE Step 2 Review

Diverticulitis – USMLE Step 2 Review

Diverticulitis may be a common digestive disease that involves the formation of pouches (diverticula) inside the bowel wall. This method is known as diverticulosis, and usually occurs among the large intestine, or colon, though it will occasionally occur ...
Congenital Heart Disease - USMLE Step 2 Review

Congenital Heart Disease – USMLE Step 2 Review

Congenital heart defect (CHD) or congenital heart anomaly  could be a defect within the structure of the center and great vessels that is present at birth. Many varieties of heart defects exist, most of that either obstruct blood flow in the guts or ...
Endocarditis - USMLE Step 2 Review

Endocarditis – USMLE Step 2 Review

Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. It usually involves the heart valves (native or prosthetic valves). Other structures that may be involved include the interventricular septum, the chordae tendineae, ...
Glycogen synthesis and breakdown (USMLE Step 1)

Pupillary light reflex – USMLE (MADE SIMPLE) + Sample Questions

The pupillary light reflex (PLR) is a reflex that controls the diameter of the pupil, in response to the intensity (luminance) of light that falls on the retina of the pupil and the eye, thereby assisting in adaptation to various levels of lightness/darkness. ...